# Contents

"Internal Developer Platforms (IDPs) are robust systems meticulously crafted by platform teams to facilitate and streamline the development process, all while empowering developers with self-service capabilities."

Internal Developer Platforms (IDPs) platforms integrate various technologies and tools that work seamlessly together to optimize workflows for developers. The primary aim of an IDP is to lessen the cognitive load on developers while maintaining the context and underlying technologies. IDPs are built and maintained based on best practices and in-depth user research to ensure the utmost usability and effectiveness.

An IDP is a platform primarily configured by Operations (Ops) teams employed by developers. Ops teams define the resources coupled with specific environments or based on specific requests. They also establish templates for application configurations and manage permissions. By automating recurring tasks like environment setup, IDPs alleviate the burden on Ops teams, enabling them to maintain and enforce standards easily. Concurrently, developer teams enjoy the autonomy to modify configurations, deploy applications, create fully provisioned environments, and revert changes. IDPs can either be developed internally or acquired from external vendors.

How Platform, Ops, or DevOps teams utilize IDPs

Platform teams are crucial in constructing, operating, configuring, and sustaining IDPs. These teams concentrate on standardization, infrastructure management, service level agreements, and optimizing workflows. They configure IDPs to automate repetitive tasks, such as resource and environment provisioning for developers. Additionally, platform teams establish a baseline for dynamic configuration management to prevent unstructured scripting, which can result in increased maintenance efforts. The key elements that platform teams often handle include:

  • Infrastructure Orchestration: This feature empowers Ops or Platform teams to manage and synchronize the infrastructure required for the IDP effectively.

  • Role-Based Action Control (RBAC): RBAC guarantees that access to different IDP functionalities and resources is controlled based on predefined roles and permissions.

  • Application Configuration Management: This facet enables platform teams to set standard templates for application configurations, ensuring consistency and adherence to standards.

  • Deployment Management: This component allows developers to track and manage the deployment of their applications across various environments.

  • Environment Management: Developers can utilize this feature to smoothly provision and manage fully provisioned environments specific to their applications.

How application developers exploit the potential of IDPs

For application developers, IDPs seamlessly integrate into their existing workflows, which typically revolve around a git-push deploy methodology. IDPs enhance the deployment process by introducing automation and self-service capabilities, granting developers greater control. They can now request resources, create fully provisioned environments, revert changes, and autonomously deploy applications. This increased independence and streamlined process empowers developers to be more productive and efficient.

A modern developer's toolkit typically includes three essential components, often called the "three panes of glass": the Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for development, git for version control and merging, and the IDP for shipping and deployment.

The five critical components of an IDP

While variations may exist, a comprehensive IDP typically incorporates five essential components:

  1. Developer Portal: The developer portal serves as the gateway through which developers can explore and access the features and capabilities offered by the IDP. It provides access to documentation, tutorials, and other valuable resources.

  2. Service Catalog: The service catalog is a central repository of available services and resources developers can request and utilize within their applications.

  3. User Interfaces (UI): IDPs commonly provide multiple user interfaces to cater to diverse preferences and needs. These user interfaces enable developers to interact with the platform and effectively manage their applications.

  4. Application Programming Interface (API): IDPs offer APIs that enable programmatic access and seamless integration with external tools and systems. This allows developers to automate tasks and seamlessly incorporate the IDP into their development workflows.

  5. Command-Line Interface (CLI): The CLI provides developers with a command-line interface to interact with the IDP and perform actions via the command line.

Integration with existing technologies and tools

IDPs are specifically designed to leverage and integrate with the technologies and tools developed teams utilize. This integration is primarily accomplished through APIs to avoid introducing additional scripts that could increase security risks and maintenance overhead. Kubernetes, a widely used container orchestration platform, is frequently the foundation for modern IDPs. Platform teams assign fixed clusters to the IDP and associate them with specific environments. When a developer requests a new environment, the IDP can create a namespace within the assigned cluster and handle the necessary configurations. Continuous Integration (CI) setups retrieve built images required for updating environments or creating new ones as part of the IDP. External resources, such as databases and DNS, are connected through resource drivers that communicate the success or failure of resource updates or creation to the IDP's API. Moreover, various Ops tools like monitoring, chaos engineering, and GitOps can be seamlessly integrated into different workflows within an IDP based on the team's preferences and requirements.

The rationale behind the name "Internal Developer Platform."

The term "Internal Developer Platform" distinguishes these platforms from externally facing platforms such as Twilio's developer platforms. IDPs are customized explicitly for internal use within an organization, catering specifically to the needs of application developers. The term "Internal" emphasizes that the platform is exclusive to an organization's internal teams. "Developer" underscores that the primary users of the platform are application developers. Finally, the term "Platform" signifies the comprehensive nature of the solution, which offers a wide array of capabilities and tools to aid developers in building and deploying applications.

Alternative naming conventions, although less accurate and prone to misunderstanding, include "Internal platform," "Developer portal/platform," and "Application management framework."

The benefits of building and utilizing an Internal Developer Platform (IDP)

Internal Developer Platforms (IDPs) exert a significant favorable influence on the velocity and satisfaction levels of development teams. By offering self-service capabilities while minimizing cognitive load, IDPs enhance developer productivity, improve developer experience, reduce manual labor, lower costs, and decrease maintenance efforts. At the organizational level, IDPs drive standardization, leading to a more sustainable and scalable development environment. The clear separation of responsibilities between platform teams and application developers allows for establishing golden paths, ensuring best practices are followed.

IDPs promote standardization, increase developer productivity, and enhance developer experience. They have a quantifiable impact on the engineering organization's productivity and influence relevant DevOps metrics, such as mean time to recovery (MTTR) and Change Failure Rate (CFR). For application developers, IDPs boost deployment frequency, reduce lead time, and contribute to various other factors that positively affect their work.

"IDPs have a significant positive impact on the velocity and satisfaction of development teams by reducing manual labour, lowering costs, and driving standardisation towards a more sustainable and scalable development environment."

The qualitative and quantitative impact of an IDP

The impact of an IDP can be divided into qualitative and quantitative aspects. The qualitative impact is often complex to measure and encompass the benefits of self-service capabilities and increased developer accountability. With an IDP, developers can take their ideas from conception to production without constant assistance from operations teams. This heightened ownership and visibility foster better collaboration and enable teams to work more creatively and experimentally. A practical example would be the facilitation of multi-cloud delivery setups, which would be challenging to handle without an IDP.

The quantitative impact of an IDP is contingent on the size and structure of the engineering organization. While smaller teams may not experience the same pain points related to a lack of standardization, enterprise organizations boasting hundreds or thousands of developers frequently deploying applications can significantly benefit from implementing an IDP. There is a framework that provides insights into the impact of an IDP, which includes calculating the number of procedures performed per 100 deployments and the corresponding time wasted in the absence of a properly functioning IDP. The impact may vary, and organizations can formulate metrics based on their unique experiences.

Exploring Potential Drawbacks and Challenges of Implementing an IDP

While Internal Developer Platforms (IDPs) offer numerous benefits to development teams, it is essential to acknowledge the potential drawbacks and challenges that may arise during implementing and utilizing an IDP. Organizations can better prepare and mitigate any possible obstacles by understanding these challenges.

Here are some key considerations to keep in mind:

  1. Complexity and Learning Curve: Implementing an IDP can introduce a certain level of complexity to the development process. Developers may need time to familiarize themselves with the new platform, features, and workflows. Training and onboarding programs may be necessary to ensure a smooth transition and facilitate the IDP adoption.

  2. Integration with Existing Processes and Tools: Integrating an IDP with existing processes, tools, and infrastructure can be challenging. Organizations may face compatibility issues or require significant modifications to their existing workflows. Careful planning and coordination are crucial to ensure seamless integration.

  3. Dependency on Platform Team: IDPs often rely on a dedicated team to manage and maintain the platform. This dependency can introduce potential bottlenecks if the platform team becomes overwhelmed or experiences delays in fulfilling requests or maintaining the platform.

Determining the need for an Internal Developer Platform (IDP)

The decision to implement an Internal Developer Platform (IDP) is a strategic one that relies on an organization's specific needs and circumstances. It is crucial to avoid prematurely complicating the development process and consider utilizing off-the-shelf platforms, such as Heroku, as long as they meet requirements. Typical reasons for transitioning from off-the-shelf platforms to an IDP include the necessity for granular access to infrastructure, cost control, or advanced data privacy and security requirements.

In certain situations, an IDP may not be necessary, for example, in teams consisting of a few specialized developers proficient in scripting and infrastructure management or where there is a single monolithic application with a straightforward, single-cloud infrastructure.

Conversely, an IDP is typically justified when a microservice architecture is in place; a large development team is supported by dedicated DevOps personnel, enhanced collaboration, reduced dependencies are desired, or multi-cloud deployment capabilities are required. Adopting an IDP should be based on an organization's specific needs and objectives.

In conclusion, an Internal Developer Platform (IDP) is a comprehensive system that empowers developers and streamlines the development process. By providing self-service capabilities, standardization, and automation, IDPs positively impact development teams' productivity, efficiency, and satisfaction.

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  • Standardization
  • Internal Developer Platforms
  • IDP
  • DevOps